Art Appraisal Blog

Category - Country Studies

06/22/2022
Country Studies

Can Digital G2P Transfers Drive Financial Inclusion and Digital Payments? Evidence from India

Does channeling government-to-person (G2P) payments through bank accounts encourage financial inclusion and use? This paper explores the factors that have driven the adoption of digital payments in India by beneficiaries of PMGKY, the large-scale COVID-19 relief program launched in May 2020. India’s 2013 move to pay social benefits through direct transfers into bank accounts significantly increased account ownership, but uptake of digital payments has been slower, although it has accelerated...

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05/20/2022
Beneficiary Identification, Targeting, Onboarding

COVID-19 and Social Assistance in the Philippines: Lessons for Future Resilience

This note describes the phases of the COVID-19 SP response in the Philippines and assesses the performance with a focus on social assistance. It provides estimates of the coverage, adequacy, targeting accuracy, timeliness, and payment delivery of COVID-19 social assistance in the Philippines based on several household surveys and studies. The note pays special attention to the Philippines’ flagship social protection program, the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), and the...

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04/29/2022
Country Studies

Beyond India’s Lockdown: PMGKY Benefits During the COVID-19 Crisis and the State of Digital Payments

India imposed a lock-down in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020 and began a gradual re-opening in June. A telephonic survey in April examined the early effectiveness of information and the massive PMGKY social protection program (Policy Paper 217). This paper analyzes a second-round survey, conducted six months later. Logistical and information constraints had relaxed, and incomes and jobs had begun to stabilize for some. There were not...

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04/29/2022
Country Studies

Digitalization: A Safe Path to a More Inclusive Recovery in Indonesia?

There are two key longstanding structural constraints to inclusive growth in Indonesia—low financial inclusion and limited access to finance—resulting in a large financing gap. Indonesia’s digitalization— growing rapidly in the e-commerce and financial services sector, the latter facilitated by fintech—is helping close this gap. The COVID-19 pandemic will likely serve to further accelerate this digital transformation: adoption of e-commerce and digital payments has increased amidst lockdowns and social distancing. Digitalization...

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03/29/2022
Country Studies

Toward More Accessible and Inclusive Social Assistance Delivery: A Geospatial Analysis in the Philippines

The Philippines’ experience in implementing the Social Amelioration Program (SAP) in response to the COVID -19 pandemic highlights the pressing need for financial inclusion, especially among the poor. Not only ownership of bank or mobile money accounts but also accessibility to financial services is essential for financial inclusion. This study assesses the challenges and opportunities in financial inclusion, especially among the poor in remote communities. It finds, among other things,...

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03/4/2022
Country Studies

Social Protection in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Lessons from South Africa

This paper reviews South Africa’s social protection policies and their implementation during the COVID-19 crisis. Overall, the government reached over 30 million South Africans with cash-based relief measures. A distinctive feature of cash-based emergency relief was the use of digital technologies, especially in the application and verification process for the new SRD grant. The payment system, however, relied heavily on manual cash disbursements, thus failing to reflect the adoption of...

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01/21/2022
Beneficiary Identification, Targeting, Onboarding

Digitalization of Social Protection Systems Policy in Indonesia as a Step Towards Society 5.0

This paper discusses efforts to digitize Indonesia’s social protection systems in the context of Japan’s Society 5.0 initiative. It summarizes the trajectory of database development and use in Indonesia, as well as the country’s 2017 mandate that all government benefits be distributed in a cashless manner.

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01/10/2022
Country Studies

Digital Cash Transfers in LAO PDR

The use of cash as a modality for delivering humanitarian and social protection assistance in Lao PDR is nascent. Up until recently, cash in hand has been the only feasible way to deliver transfers to targeted recipients. This scoping exercise highlights how mobile money could redress some of the drawbacks linked to cash in hand for both cash actors and beneficiaries. These include: access constraints, lack of traceability, and the...

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11/17/2021
Country Studies

COVID-19 G2P Cash-Transfer Payments Case Study: Philippines

G2PX is an initiative within the World Bank Group that seeks to improve government-to-people payments through digitization, in part by identifying best practices throughout the developing world. In this country study, G2PX examines the experience of the Philippines in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.

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11/17/2021
Country Studies

G2P Payment Arrangements in Egypt and COVID-19

G2PX is an initiative within the World Bank Group that seeks to improve government-to-people payments through digitization, in part by identifying best practices throughout the developing world. In this country study, G2PX examines the experience of Egypt in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.

Views 254
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